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تبلیغات
بزرگترین وبلاگ تخصصی آبزی پروری و فرآوری - جامعه شناسی شیلاتی(fisherise socieology)
بزرگترین وبلاگ تخصصی آبزی پروری و فرآوری
World fisheries research organization

 
تاريخ : سه شنبه دوازدهم بهمن 1389
  • Updated on : 17 January 2011
Iran

Historical background

Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and Shah Mohammad Reza PAHLAVI was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces established a theocratic system of government with ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar referred to commonly as the Supreme Leader who, according to the constitution, is accountable only to the Assembly of Experts - a popularly elected 86-member body of clerics. US-Iranian relations have been strained since a group of Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran on 4 November 1979 and held it until 20 January 1981. During 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq that eventually expanded into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between US Navy and Iranian military forces between 1987 and 1988. Iran has been designated a state sponsor of terrorism for its activities in Lebanon and elsewhere in the world and remains subject to US, UN, and EU economic sanctions and export controls because of its continued involvement in terrorism and its nuclear weapons ambitions. Following the election of reformer Hojjat ol-Eslam Mohammad KHATAMI as president in 1997 and a reformist Majles (legislature) in 2000, a campaign to foster political reform in response to popular dissatisfaction was initiated. The movement floundered as conservative politicians, through the control of unelected institutions, prevented reform measures from being enacted and increased repressive measures. Starting with nationwide municipal elections in 2003 and continuing through Majles elections in 2004, conservatives reestablished control over Iran's elected government institutions, which culminated with the August 2005 inauguration of hardliner Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD as president. His controversial reelection in June 2009 sparked nationwide protests over allegations of electoral fraud. The UN Security Council has passed a number of resolutions (1696 in July 2006, 1737 in December 2006, 1747 in March 2007, 1803 in March 2008, and 1835 in September 2008) calling for Iran to suspend its uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities and comply with its IAEA obligations and responsibilities. Resolutions 1737, 1477, and 1803 subject a number of Iranian individuals and entities involved in Iran's nuclear and ballistic missile programs to sanctions. Additionally, several Iranian entities are subject to US sanctions under Executive Order 13382 designations for proliferation activities and EO 13224 designations for support of terrorism.

Iran

Economic overview

Iran's economy is marked by an inefficient state sector, reliance on the oil sector, which provides the majority of government revenues, and statist policies, which create major distortions throughout the system. Private sector activity is typically limited to small-scale workshops, farming, and services. Price controls, subsidies, and other rigidities weigh down the economy, undermining the potential for private-sector-led growth. Significant informal market activity flourishes. The legislature in late 2009 passed President Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD's bill to reduce subsidies, particularly on food and energy. The bill would phase out subsidies - which benefit Iran's upper and middle classes the most - over three to five years and replace them with cash payments to Iran's lower classes. However, the start of the program was delayed repeatedly throughout 2010 over fears of public reaction to higher prices. This is the most extensive economic reform since the government implemented gasoline rationing in 2007. The recovery of world oil prices in the last year increased Iran's oil export revenue by at least $10 billion over 2009, easing some of the financial impact of the newest round of international sanctions. Although inflation has fallen substantially since the mid-2000s, Iran continues to suffer from double-digit unemployment and underemployment. Underemployment among Iran's educated youth has convinced many to seek jobs overseas, resulting in a significant "brain drain."

 

Imports

$58.97 billion (2010 est.)
$58.97 billion (2009 est.)

Exports

$78.69 billion (2010 est.)
$69.04 billion (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

11.8% (2010 est.)
13.5% (2009 est.)
note: official Iranian estimate

Unemployment rate

14.6% (2010 est.)
10.3% (2008 est.)
note: data are according to the Iranian Government

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$11,200 (2010 est.)
$11,000 (2009 est.)
$11,000 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars

National product real growth rate

3% (2010 est.)
1.5% (2009 est.)
2.5% (2008 est.)

Internet users

8.214 million (2009)

Telephones - mobile cellular

52.555 million (2009)

Population growth rate

1.253% (2010 est.)

Population

76,923,300 (July 2010 est.)


Read more: http://www.reportlinker.com/r0741/Iran-industry-reports.html#ixzz1Cgf5aDaI
Read more: http://www.reportlinker.com/r0741/Iran-industry-reports.html#ixzz1CgeaX4e9


ارسال توسط بهادر صفی خانی قلی زاده
 
تاريخ : دوشنبه هجدهم مرداد 1389

 

جنبش نرم افزاری در کشور ...

 

 

 هر چند رشد كمي تعداد دانش آموختگان در اوايل انقلاب و تا سالها بعد نتايج مثبتي داشت، اما با افزايش اين رشد و توجه نكردن به رشد كيفي و سطح علمي اين دانش آموختگان، موانع و مشكلاتي در عرصه جنبش نرم افزاري پديد آمد. از سويي، چالشهاي اجتماعي و فرهنگي - از جمله سيل عظيم مدرك گرايي و تأثيرهاي منفي آن و از سوي ديگر



استقبال نكردن دانشجويان از حركتهاي علمي در محيطهاي دانشگاهي به دليل كمبودهاي مالي، اجتماعي و علمي و ... - عرصه را بر حضور قوي حركتهاي توليد علوم و جنبش نرم افزاري تنگ كرده است. نبود روحيه پرسشگري در دانشجويان و دانش آموختگان و به همان نسبت نبود روحيه انتقال مفاهيم علمي و فرهنگي در استادان نيز بر اين مهم افزوده و تا امروز هيچ راهكار مناسبي از سوي انديشمندان معرفي نشده است.

رسيدگي جدي به دغدغه هاي منفي دانشجويان و استادان، عرصه را براي حضور اين اصلي ترين قشر جنبش نرم افزاري، هموار مي كند. به روز بودن اطلاعات ارائه شده به دانشجويان، اتكا نداشتن به متون ترجمه اي كه متأسفانه گهگاه بسيار قديمي هم هستند، از جمله موانع حضور كمي و گسترده انديشه و حركتهاي علمي در محيطهاي آكادميك است.


دانشجو  دشمن كمين گرفته  را از ياد نمي‌برد و غافلانه خود و دانشگاه و كشورش را به دست تطاول دشمن نمي‌سپرد...(مقام معظم رهبری)

 



ارسال توسط بهادر صفی خانی قلی زاده

پیج رنک

آرایش

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